Loch Ness Monster Neck

Loch Ness Monster Neck (Otherwise known as breathing position in breaststroke!)

During a recent meeting with a client, I was asked:  What’s up with the Loch Ness Monster neck you recommend for breaststroke breathing?”

It took only a few seconds to understand the question – – and a few more to stop laughing. What a great question though – – and one that made sense to us both.  That’s because I do teach a pretty different approach to breaststroke breathing. It’s definitely not a hoax though, as science clearly shows a better way than what conventional wisdom tells us. (By the way, we don’t actually refer to an effective breathing position as “Loch Ness Monster Neck.”)

Common recommendations for breaststroke breathing call for lifting the “head, neck, and upper chest out of the water to breathe.”  In Figure 1, Michael Phelps does exactly that.

Figure 1. Michael Phelps breathes on breaststroke.

In addition, many sources recommend a “neutral” angle at the neck while maintaining the head and torso “in alignment.”  You can see clearly that these recommendations require “lifting the head” (a strictly vertical motion maintaining the alignment of head, neck, and body), as opposed to “extending at the neck” (a primarily rotational motion of the head about the neck).

So what’s wrong with this picture and how does the “Loch Ness Monster neck” make a difference?

First, let’s consider the laws of physics.

That angled body position creates considerable additional resistance as more of the surface of the upper body must push through the water.  Think about it and try a simple experiment. (No need to jump in the pool.)  Imagine riding in a car with the window open and your arm out. Hold your hand parallel to the road for a few seconds. Then, flex at the wrist to hold your hand perpendicular to the road.  Which position generates more resistance against your hand?  Now, think about that same movement in water, which generates considerably more resistance than air. The angled body is a less hydrodynamically effective shape that increases both form resistance (underwater) and wave resistance. (See Figure 2.)

It seems “eyeball” obvious that maintaining a position more parallel to the water would make a difference.

Figure 2. An above surface arm recovery is consistent with the excess upward head and body motion of typical breaststroke technique. Also, note the wave resistance. Is there any way that could help a swimmer swim faster?

How about the biomechanics of that excess vertical motion?

The typical upward breathing motion limits a swimmer’s speed in a number of related ways:

  • Generating upward body motion compromises forward arm propulsion.
  • A decrease in arm propulsion, in turn, slows the swimmer’s velocity at a critical point in the stroke cycle – just prior to the kick recovery.
  • The excess vertical motion increases the path that the body travels. (Again think about just this one point: what is the shorter distance: a straight line or a curvy/undulating line?)
  • From the breathing position, it requires considerable time for the swimmer to regain the streamline position. (Which takes longer? Bobbing up and down or staying level and streamlined in the water?)


Which brings us to the Loch Ness Monster Neck.

There are two main options to position the mouth above the surface so that the swimmer can take a breath. The first option for breathing is to change the angle of the body. In Figure 3, the model maintains the nonbreathing neck orientation and angles the body. Much of her torso must push against water and wave resistance. (This is the option illustrated in Figures 1 and 2 above.)

It might help to look at an illustration rather than a photograph. (Figure 3 below)

Figure 3. In this illustration, the model has a 30o angle at the lower back and a 0o angle at the neck.


The second breathing option (Figure 4 below) is to change the angle at the neck to breathe. While this option might feel strange and seem difficult at first, it offers several advantages.

Figure 4. The model has a 12o angle at the lower back and is extending her neck through the full range of motion (about 60o angle at the neck). The front view shows an improved hydrodynamic shape.

If the body maintains a more level position by breathing with full neck extension, limitations are minimized. Specifically:

  • The arm motion generates more force to move the body forward instead of upward.
  • A greater arm propulsion maintains a greater body velocity prior to the kick recovery.
  • The more level body is more hydrodynamically shaped, reducing form and wave resistance.
  • Less vertical motion produces a shorter path for the body to travel.
  • From the breathing position, it requires less time for the swimmer to regain the streamline position.

So, how do you develop this improved breathing technique? Practice!

You probably already know that a swimmer will not naturally use the full range of motion at the neck to breathe.  Learning to use complete neck extension may initially be uncomfortable.  Consequently, swimmers may be discouraged from practicing sufficient repetitions. But there are 3 considerable rewards when a swimmer masters this breathing technique:

  1. Resistance is minimized as the body remains more horizontal
  2. Arm motion is more effective as the body travels a shorter path
  3. The reduced vertical motion enables the swimmer to more quickly regain the streamline position on every stroke cycle.

As with other technique improvements, there are cues that a swimmer can use to learn to completely extend the neck for a more effective breathing motion. Focusing on cues will help change the breathing motion.

Cue 1: As the neck begins to extend, the swimmer can feel the chin move forward through the water.

Cue 2: As the neck completely extends, the swimmer can feel the limit of the range of motion at the back of the neck.

Cue 3: When the head is in position to breathe, the swimmer can see the wall at the end of the pool.

Remember those two options?  If the swimmer does not change the neck angle, then he/she must change the body angle to position the mouth above the surface. When the body angle changes, the swimmer generates excess resistance, expends more energy, and swims slower.

I hope you’ll consider the “Loch Ness Monster Neck” and discover for yourself that this breaststroke breathing technique is real – and far more effective that the more conventional method!

By | December 5th, 2018|Uncategorized|0 Comments

5 Swim Practice Habits That Will Help You Swim Faster

1. Chunk your workout.
Dedicate a specific distance to specific technique elements, speed, or effort level. For example, swim a set of 10 x 25 yards fly focused on keeping your head motionless at the surface of the water on the non-breathing strokes.

2. Commit to an improvement plan.
Set a short-term goal and determine how you will measure progress. For example, establish a base line stroke count for 25 yards/ meters and figure out how much variability there is in a given workout. Work on stroke count consistency before setting improvement goals.

3. Construct bottom-line instructions for each set.
Plan each training set using DIRT – distance, interval, repetitions, and time for each swim. Then, practice deliberately by following your plan for each set.

4. Focus on single technique adjustments.
There are two reasons for this. First, it is very difficult to maintain technique when fatigued and second, many elements of technique are complicated and must be learned in sequence. For example, a swimmer must control head position before addressing arm motions. Once one technique element is mastered, another can be added.

5. Give your body the time and fuel it needs to recover.
According to Dr. Joel Stager, Director of the ‘Doc” Counsilman Center at Indiana University, improvement happens with recovery – not stress, killer workouts or thought-free yardage. Dr. Stager is also a firm believer in the benefits of chocolate milk immediately after each practice to help the recovery process. (Learn more: http://www.indiana.edu/~ccss/files/Documents/Chocolate%20Milk%20Study%20Paper.pdf)

By | November 8th, 2017|Uncategorized|0 Comments

5 Scientific Concepts Behind Optimal Technique

Do you know the real effect science has had on swimming? Here are 5 of the most important scientific concepts behind today’s most competitive swimming technique.

1. Swimming forces are composed of both lift and drag.

Why is this important? Research on lift and drag forces made it possible to determine optimal angles for the hand pitch and the hand path that would maximize propulsion.


 2. Hand speed must increase throughout the underwater motion.

Why is this important? During the underwater motion of all strokes, a swimmer should continually increase hand speed. Hand acceleration is critical for faster times.


 3. The Index of Coordination (IdC) quantifies the relative positions of the arms during the stroke cycle.  

Why is this important? When a swimmer is completing the push phase with one hand, he or she should immediately begin the pull phase with the other hand. This technique adjustment (creating a positive IdC) produces a more continuous source of propulsion resulting in faster times.


 4. The Law of Levers applies to the strength of different arm positions.

Why is this important? Applying the concept of leverage (i.e. the Law of Levers) makes it possible to determine how best to position the arm throughout the stroke cycle.


 5. The Drag Coefficient quantifies the impact of technique changes.

Why is this important? An accurate measurement of technique provides valuable information that allows both the coach and swimmer to evaluate the benefit of any technique improvement.

By | July 21st, 2017|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Unconventional Backstroke Start

Racing starts can vary from swimmer to swimmer, but there is one constant: the desire to start the race as fast as possible. Based on biomechanics, we’ve got a take on the backstroke start that you may not have seen before. When executed correctly, this small change helps swimmers begin their race with maximum propulsive force.



Swimmers typically swing their arms above their shoulders on a backstroke start. This motion causes the swimmer to distribute force at a more downward angle on the wall—sometimes even causing feet to slip.

A swimmer will have less chances of having the feet slip on the wall and will be better able to generate propulsive force if the arms swing back below the shoulders and into a streamline.




Give it a try on your next backstroke start!


By | June 15th, 2017|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Fly Stroke Counting Exercise

If you’re reading our blog, you’re at least a little interested in swimming biomechanics and our science-based approach to technique. One question we often hear from coaches is, “Where do I start?”

It’s a good question: How do you begin to introduce this new approach to your club?

We suggest that a great way to begin is with numbers! In fact, we believe that quantitative data is the most valuable feedback you can give your swimmers. Happily, stroke counts provide quantative data that can help identify a swimmer’s strengths and weaknesses.

The stroke counting exercise below will help you gather quantitative data from your swimmers and use it in a meaningful way.

In a set of 25’s fly on an easy interval (like 1 minute), have swimmers count their strokes at increased levels of effort – 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100%. Record the counts. (Make sure their push-off is consistent and they move their arms continuously.)

  1. Look at the variation with perceived level of effort. (Overall, each swimmer’s butterfly stroke counts should not vary more than 1-2 strokes in any effort level.) It is typical to see swimmers with low stroke counts for lower effort levels, and much higher counts (around 5 more) for higher effort levels. It is natural to move your arms faster when you want to go faster, but an increase in stroke count indicates that technique is suffering as a result.
  2. Working with your swimmers individually, identify what element of their technique is failing at higher effort levels. Maybe their breathing becomes exaggerated, or the arms are not completing the push phase. Discuss with the swimmer and make suggestions for improvement.
  3. Repeat!

Implementing this stroke counting exercise on a regular basis can help you track progress and skill mastery. And it gives you a clear way to add data – and science – to your workout.

By | May 24th, 2017|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Phelps vs. Manatee

Just for fun, we thought we’d take a look at how the most decorated Olympian of all time, Michael Phelps, compares to a few familiar aquatic animals. You might be surprised at the results!

By | May 15th, 2017|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Triathletes: Losing your race on the swim leg?

The competitors beating you in the water aren’t faster because they spend more time in the water. They’re faster because they have better technique.

Many triathletes stand to make substantial time drops in their swimming leg by making small changes to their freestyle technique. And here’s the best part—technique changes (even drastic ones!) are best done in SHORT, focused training sessions. A 15-30 minute swim is plenty of time to concentrate on technique.

1.       Consult with a coach or technique expert on your personal technique strengths and weaknesses.

2.       Train with short swims (25yds are best) at a slow stroke rate where you are not getting fatigued.

3.       Concentrate on technique as much as possible during every training session. Don’t worry about swimming fast. As changes become more ingrained, you can slowly increase speed.

4.       As with any sport, swimming technique often gets worse as the athlete becomes fatigued. More reps done focused on technique when not fatigued, means more permanent technique changes.

Additional resources:

Sample Chapters of Approaching Perfect Freestyle E-book

Three technique elements you can’t swim well without

Video on freestyle head position


By | March 27th, 2017|Uncategorized|0 Comments

4 Things to Look for in a Swim Camp

Swimming World recently posted its annual listing of swim camps. For any swimmer or parent considering which of the available camps to attend, we have a few suggestions.

4 Things to Look for in a Swim Camp

  1. Low swimmer to instructor ratio. If you’re working with one coach and 40 other swimmers, chances are you will receive very limited personal feedback. You’ll get more out of the session if you receive individual attention.
  2. Emphasis on technique over conditioning. Conditioning is important, but a week of intense training will not have a long term impact on your physical fitness or your speed. To the extreme, over training can cause injury and technique usually gets worse with fatigue.
  3. High level of instruction. Check the credentials of the instructors and coaches at camps you are considering. If you’re serious about swimming faster, look for a camp that offers more than white board workouts and someone to call out the sets.
  4. A positive overall experience. Keep your goals in mind! Whether you want to swim faster or just have fun and meet new people, there IS a swim camp out there for you!
By | March 2nd, 2017|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Have you made your choice?

Yogi Berra, the NY Yankees legend who died in September at the age of 90, was known as much for his sayings as for his actions on the field. One of my personal favorites is “When you come to a fork in the road, take it.”  And, while all of us have certainly been following that advice our entire lives, I think there is a special message here for any aspiring athlete.

There are so many “forks in the road” for anyone who wants to be great. Many of the choices made seem inconsequential while still others seem to tie us to a path as surely as with concrete. In the swimming world, coaches, athletes (from beginner to Olympian), sport scientists of every discipline, parents, and even casual observers of the sport have been quick to identify the “one true way” to success.

Sometimes those ways clearly contradict one another. At other times, those contradictions seem clear only to the champions of the differing approaches. As an avid fan of the sport of swimming as well as a swim parent married to a sport scientist, I have been alternately dismayed and excited to observe several current events that seem also to require the swimmer as well as the swimming community to make a choice.

There are three “forks” that many coaches and swimmers are considering at the moment. Each supposedly implies a choice and a clear path once that choice is made.



Fork 1: Swim coaches are inundated with information and opinions from “outsiders” who can’t possibly have anything valid or important to contribute to the sport.  Coaches should listen only to other coaches. The opposing path: Science and research-based technique adjustments and strategies are critically needed to support individual swimmers, coaches and teams.  



Fork 2: USRPT (Ultra Short Race Pace Training) is the only way to top tier swimming. The fork in the road: Swimmers cannot succeed without mega-yardage (15,000 -20,000 yards per day) beginning at around age 12.





Fork 3: Athletic success is based primarily on genes, i.e. Michael Phelps and Missy Franklin physiques. And yes, on the other side, champions are made, not born. While the first clearly favors the physically gifted, the second choice gives added weight to effort (deliberate practice) and opportunity – including the resources to select a coach and even a country to train in. (How many Olympians from other countries train in the US?)

Are any of these truly clear choices? Let us know what you think and why. The first 10 people to weigh in will get a free copy of MONA Cue Cards. We’ll share responses in a future blog.

P.S. Yogi also is supposed to have said: “If you can’t imitate him, don’t copy him.” The decision to teach technique based on another athlete’s accomplishments presents one more fork that, thankfully more coaches are making every day: a place on the podium does NOT necessarily mean that a swimmer’s technique should be modeled!


By | December 4th, 2015|Uncategorized|10 Comments


Three Freestyle Elements YouSplash Can’t Swim (Well) Without

Whether you are new to swimming or have been competing for years, you must master three key technique elements if you want to swim freestyle fast.  And, while each element may seem simple, you may need a reminder and a swim cue to stay on track.

Freestyle is the most popular competitive stroke but it is far from simple to swim well. In fact, it is impossible to swim your fastest unless you first master each of the following technique elements. And, while it is certainly possible to learn them in any order, it will be most productive to master each technique element in the order presented. (If you’re not sure what you do currently, ask a fellow swimmer to watch or video you swim a lap or two. You want to know:

  • Where you are looking on each stroke? (Are you looking down toward the bottom of the pool, straight ahead, or somewhere in between? Is your head completely underwater, partially underwater, or above the surface?)
  • How do you position your legs during each kick? (Are your heels breaking the surface on each kick? Are your legs parallel to the water or angled downward? How much are you bending your knees?)
  • At what point do you finish each stroke? (Where is your hand just before you exit your arm from the water? Is it close to your body or out to the side? Is your hand under your shoulder, hip or thigh as you finish each stroke? )

Once you have a clear idea of what you are doing, you’re ready to assess and improve your technique using swim cues.

So what do we mean by a cue?

Cues are a type of performance prompt commonly used in a number of sport-related sciences, especially biomechanics. Cues are used extensively to guide movement in skill sports. A cue specifies the position or motion of a body part. Cues may be visual (something you can see), kinesthetic (something you can feel), or auditory (something you can hear).

When there is the option of using visual or kinesthetic information, athletes typically will control motion better with visual information. However, about three-fourths of the stroke cycle is out of the swimmer’s range of vision. Consequently, swimmers must generally rely on kinesthetic feedback – i.e. what they feel at a certain point in the stroke.

The three priority technique elements for effective freestyle relate to head position, leg position, and hand position at the end of each stroke. We’ll take a look at each in the rest of this article.

Priority 1: Maintain a stable head position.

Well, not just any stable head position! Instead, you will need to keep your head motionless during non-breathing strokes. (And during streamline! Tucking your chin to your chest is not helpful to a streamlined body position as it increases resistance.) Use these cues to monitor your head position when not breathing:

SwimCue 1: Feel the water at your hairline.

Your head should be held as motionless as possible (no vertical or side-to-side movement) with the water level at your hairline. If you hold your head too low, as when your head is below the waterline, you make breathing more difficult. The result: you will swim more slowly and tire more quickly.

This can take some practice, especially if you have been dropping your head below the water at some point in each stroke. Maintaining that motionless positon is important for two reasons. First, it positions your head for breathing with minimal motion. (Think about it: if your head is dropped below the surface of the water you’ll need to either lift your head or rotate it very far to breathe. That takes time and energy and you need both for better things!) And second, a motionless head position makes it easier to visually evaluate the beginning of the arm cycle.

SwimCue 2: See ahead at a 45o angle.

Is your vision directed down and toward the bottom of the pool? Both the wall at the end of the pool and the bottom of the pool should be within your view without raising your head. This simple cue helps you orient your head with respect to the water. If you can see your toes – or for that matter any body part – your chin is tucked and the water is level with the top of your head. (If you are swimming in open water, you should still direct your eyes at a 45o angle whenever you are not sighting for markers or breathing.)








Figure 1. The non-breathing head position with lines showing the boundaries of an optimal field of view (side view).

If the water level is at your hairline, your vision will probably be looking at a 45o angle, and vice versa. (Nice how these two cues work together!)

There are a few other things to consider as you apply these two cues.

First, the head position remains fixed throughout the non-breathing stroke cycle and there is no vertical, lateral, or rotational movement.

Second, the exact position of the water level on the forehead primarily depends on two factors: body composition and swimming speed. Very slight adjustments may be necessary to find the position that works best for you.

  • Swimmers with a lower proportion of body fat or a lower swimming speed may need to lower the head slightly (by flexing at the neck) so that the water level is slightly above the hairline.
  • Swimmers with a higher proportion of body fat or a faster swimming speed may find they can breathe more easily by raising the head slightly (by extending at the neck) so that the water level is just below the hairline.

Priority 2: Keep your legs parallel to the water surface with your legs almost straight and your toes pointed.

One of the many misconceptions about swimming technique is that the head must be submerged for the legs to stay behind the shoulders. Although lowering the head may help to raise the legs, breathing then requires excessive head motion that distorts the body position and increases the body cross-section (generating more resistance). Since the spine is closer than the head to the legs, arching the back is a much more effective way to control the leg position.

While this may seem self-evident, there are swimmers in every pool with their legs angled downward or with a significant knee bend so that the legs are well below the surface on every kick. Either position creates additional resistance and requires greater effort. (There’s a lot of research that compares a swimmer’s body to the shape of a hull and uses mathematical formulas to explain drag and resistance. It might be easier to understand by remembering riding in a car while holding your arm and hand out the window. If you pointed your fingertips forward and held your arm straight and parallel to the car there was less resistance against your hand than if you angled it either up or down. The impact is, of course, greater in water but the idea is the same!)

Once the head is in an optimal position, it is much easier to orient the rest of the body. Arching the lower back lifts the legs to bring the heels to the surface. If the legs stay behind the torso (as in the front view of Figure 2), resistance is minimal. The smaller the swimmer maintains the area of the body perpendicular to the direction of motion (the body cross-section), the lower the resistance.








Figure 2. Side view (left) and front view (right) for a swimmer with the legs behind the shoulders. Note that the torso and legs are within the yellow oval drawn around the shoulders to minimize resistance.

SwimCue 3: Feel your heels break the surface on each kick.

There are two phases to the kick: a downbeat and an upbeat.

The downbeat is initiated with downward motion of the upper leg, followed by the lower leg and foot, as shown in Figure 3. (While this order of limb motion is identical to a land-based kicking motion, the range of motion at each joint is drastically less – i.e. there is much less change in the angles at both the hip and knee.)

At the completion of the downbeat, the leg is straight. The straight leg moves upward during the upbeat to return to the position to begin another downbeat.

On the kick upbeat, your feet should be submerged so only the heels break the surface. Most of each foot needs to remain underwater with your legs parallel to the surface. Forget about splash! Don’t bend your knees more to kick harder or faster. The motion should come more from a relatively straight leg and shallow kick.  Remember to keep your legs level by arching your back, NOT submerging your head.








Figure 3. Right leg downbeat

Maintaining this position of your legs (parallel to the surface of the water) is vital. Your legs help to keep your body level and streamlined in the water. If your legs drop and angle downward, you increase drag. (You got it: remember how your hand movement created addition resistance when you held it out the car window? Dropping your legs even a little creates that additional drag.)

As you practice your kick, think of the leg position as being very close to how you hold your legs in the streamline.

Priority 3: Finish the push phase of every stroke.

First a little background. (Skip if this is old news to you!)

Each stroke cycle is divided into phases. Understanding the phases makes it easier to progress through the critical skills. There are four phases of the freestyle arm movement:

Exit Phase – The exit phase begins as the hand changes horizontal direction (from backward to forward) at the end of the push, continues as the arm surfaces, and ends when the arm reaches the vertical plane of the shoulders. (See Figure 4 below.)





















Figure 4. The exit phase for the right arm.

Entry Phase – The entry phase begins above the surface as the arm moves forward from the vertical plane of the shoulders, continues as the arm submerges, and ends when the hand is no longer moving forward. (See Figure 5 below.)





















Figure 5. The entry phase of the right arm.

Pull Phase – The pull phase begins as the hand begins to move backward and ends when the hand reaches the vertical plane of the shoulders.





















Figure 6. The pull phase of the right arm.

Push Phase – The push phase begins as the hand moves backward from the vertical plane of the shoulders and ends when the hand is no longer moving backward.





















Figure 7. The push phase of the right arm.

The final swim cue deals with the push phase and is arguably the most important thing you can do to improve your technique.

SwimCue 4: Feel your thumb touch the front of your thigh at the end of each stroke.

As the torso rotates at the end of the push phase, keep the hand on a backward track to finish the push below the thigh. Avoid the natural tendency to let the hand move upward with the torso as it begins to rotate.

At the completion of the push phase, your thumb should touch the front of the thigh. (See Figure 8 below.) When you push back until you touch your thigh (as opposed to letting the elbow take the arm to the surface), the elbow will remain submerged throughout the push phase.








Figure 8.The thumb touches the thigh at the completion of the push phase.

During the push, many swimmers have excess upward motion of the elbow. Consequently, at the completion of the push, the elbow is above the surface. When the elbow moves upward with the upward rotation of the torso, the hand moves upward more than backward. The result is a very sudden loss of hand force (i.e. propulsion.)

So now what?

You already knew that swimming is a skill sport. It requires an individual to master very specific movements (technique) to swim effectively. This piece covered three priority technique elements which are the foundation of an effective freestyle. They are:

  1. Maintain a stable head position.
  2. Keep your legs parallel to the water surface.
  3. Finish the push phase of every stroke.

Each was selected for this article because the cues provided for each priority make it easy for even a novice swimmer to improve their swimming technique. If you’ve ever tried to change a habit, however, you know it always looks easiest on paper. Mastering these three technique elements certainly falls into this same category. It isn’t easy! But, once you can consistently use each of the swim cues above, you will be swimming faster, enjoying swims more, and will be ready for the next set of cues!

Some final, cue-less suggestions for implementing what you’ve just learned.

  • Memorize the cues by focusing on only one cue at a time. When you are confident that you can do this technique element, move on to another cue.
  • While you are mastering each new cue, swim at slower-than-training speed. (Begin with a 60% effort level.)
  • While one important benefit of using cues is to be able to monitor your technique by yourself, asking a friend, parent, or coach for a visual check can be useful in making needed adjustments.
  • Don’t be discouraged if you feel – or actually are! – slower or less comfortable while you are working on your technique. Your “old” technique probably feels much more natural and automatic. Remember, the old technique is holding you back and could be contributing to wasted energy, loss of force, and injury.



(Please add your name to our mailing list if you like what you’ve read!)


About Swimming Technology Research (STR)

Swimming Technology Research was founded by Dr. Rod Havriluk and incorporated in Tallahassee, Florida in 1987. At STR, the science behind an idea is the foundation of every article, blog, camp, clinic, lesson or consult. While not every swimmer shares that fascination with the underlying biomechanical, physiological, and anatomical foundations, any swimmer who wants to be competitive will gain a tremendous advantage by applying proven scientific principles in swims.

By | October 12th, 2015|Uncategorized|0 Comments