There are a number of key elements that were incorporated into MONA’s backstroke from previous research with Aquanex. For example, many swimmers fail to increase force on the push phase. Consequently, MONA’s arm moves through the push phase into an anatomically┬ástronger and stronger position. Another example is that most swimmers have wasted time and motion on the entry. To minimize this limitation, MONA’s hand submerges until it is the deepest part of the arm so that it is immediately ready to begin generating force. A third example is that MONA’s torso rotates to 45o so that when the elbow flexes to 90o, the hand remains in an effective position below the surface. More detail is available at the following links:

Push Phase